Grammar, پست

مقاله ای جامع ضمایر موصولی در انگلیسی|relative clause

عبارات موصولی و استفهامی

relative clause

  relative clause (عبارات موصولی) در زبان انگلیسی چیست؟

 

عبارات موصولی اطلاعاتی درباره شخص یا چیزی که از قبل گفته شده است به ما میدهد. در واقع اطلاعات بیشتری را درباره اسمی که مطرح شده بود میدهد. برای مثال:

  • The boy who plays the piano is French.
  • those are some tickets that have already been bought .

ما میتوانیم از ضمایر موصولی زیر استفاده کنیم تا عبارات موصولی معین (defining relative clause) بسازیم. به این ضمایر و کاربرد هایشان دقت کنید.

که،کی،چه شخصی؟! Who برای فاعل
به که،که را؟ Whom برای مفعول
چه،چه چیز را؟ What برای فاعل و مفعول
مال کی؟ Whose برای حالت ملکی
کدام؟ which برای انتخاب

چه زمانی از ضمیر موصولی who , that استفاده میکنیم؟

هنگامی میتوانیم از who , that استفاده کنیم که به بیان عملی که شخصی انجام داد بپردازیم. ضمیر موصولی that رایج تر است اما کمی به حالت غیر رسمی (informal) استفاده میشود.

 

  • Who has played piano like that?
  • This is the person who has cut my hair. OR This is the person that has cut my hair.
  • Sarah is a pianist who lives in our street. OR  Sarah is a pianist that lives in our street
  • She is the lady who I met her in Green restaurant. OR She is the lady that I met her in Green restaurant
 

چه زمانی از ضمیر موصولی whom استفاده میکنیم؟

  • Whom did you see?
  • Reza is a player whom he never lets anybody be better than him.
  • She met her best friend in school whom she got married after 5 years.
  • you are far from your parents whom you haven’t seen them for about a year.
 

 

چه زمانی از ضمیر موصولی which , that استفاده میکنیم؟

از which , that هنگامی استفاده میکنیم که بخواهیم درباره اشیا و چیز ها صحبت کنیم.

  • Which do you prefer, grill or fried? 
  • I bought the book which I always wanted to have. OR I bought the book that I always wanted to have.
  • That’s my car which his brother has presented to me. OR That’s my car that his brother has presented to me.

 

چه تفاوتی بین دو کلمه موصولی Who ، whom وجود دارد؟

دوستان عزیز دقت کنید که این دو کلمه هردو میتوانند برای انسان بکار برده شود . اما تفاوت ضمیر موصولی who و whom در فاعلی و مفعولی بودن آنهاست. به مثال های زیر دقت کنید.

توجه : این ضمایر موصولی فقط برای اشخاص بکار برده میشود چه جمع باشد چه مفرد.

 

  • Who spilled the ink? David did it.     .چه کسی جوهر را ریخت؟ دیوید
  • Who can play tennis?                    چه کسی میتواند  تنیس بازی کند؟ 

Who  ضمیر فاعلی است و ضمیر مفعولی آن  whom میباشد.

  • Whom did you see? چه کسی را دیدی

نکته: قبل از whom میتوانیم حرف اضافه قرار دهیم.

  • to whom did you write the letter?            به چکسی نامه نوشتی؟ 

پس میتوان نتیجه گرفت که این دو عبارت درست میباشند: (به یک مفهوم اند)

For whom do you work ?

Who do you work for ?

 

دقت کنید که ضمایر موصولی نیز میتواند جایگاه فاعلی داشته باشد.

به مثال های زیر دقت کنید.

  • what makes people stay here is to want freedom.

  • Whose are those shoes?

به طور کل میتوان به این نکته توجه داشت موصول ها (relative clause) میتوانند در چنین شرایطی قرار بگیرند:

اگر اسم قبل از جمله موصولی انسان باشد از who (نقش فاعلی و مفعولی) یا whom (نقش مفعولی) و that (نقش فاعلی و مفعولی)

و اگر یک شی باشد از that (نقش فاعلی و مفعولی) و which (نقش فاعلی ومفعولی)

  • The boy who/that is running is very shy. (نقش فاعلی) 

پسری که درحال دویدن بسیار خجالتی است.

  • The man whom/who/that I’ve seen him in the street is criminal. (نقش مفعولی)

مردی که در خیابان دیدم جنایتکار هست.


 

نکته:اگر بخواهیم حرف اضافه قبل از ضمایر موصولی استفاده کنیم،تنها از whom و  which استفاده میکنیم.

  • The man with whom you were classmate is MR Frank.

مردی که باش همکاسی بودی اقای فرانک هست.

  • The park to which we’ve been was awesome

پارکی که رفتیم محشر بود.

 

حذف ضمیر موصولی (relative pronoun) در جملات

گاهی میتوان ضمایر موصولی را در عبارات حذف کرد. ضمایر موصولی that , who , which میتواند حذف شود در صورتی که فاعل به دنبال آن بیاید. به جملات زیر دقت کنید.

 

The nurse that we have been cured by was really kind.

The nurse we have been cured by was really kind.

(We = subject ==> میتواند حذف شود) 

 

A laptop which I have bought was really expensive.

A laptop I have bought was really expensive.

( I = subject ==> میتواند حذف بشود)

 

the nurse that treated us was really kind

( treated = verb ==> ضمیر موصولی نمیتواند حذف شود )

 

خب دوستان عزیز مطالب درباره ضمیر موصولی به اتمام رسیده و امیدوارم که براتون مفید بوده باشه.

 

برای یادگیری گرامر جامع زبان انگلیسی اینجا کلیک کنید

برای هماهنگی دوره ها و کلاس های انالاین با ما در تماس باشید

 

در این سایت نیز به بررسی این مطلب پرداخته است.

 

 

 

 

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