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تفاوت حال کامل و حال کامل استمراری

?present perfect or present perfect continuous

در ابتدا سعی دارم تفاوت حال کامل و حال کامل استمراری را با توضیح هر یک از موارد توضیح بدم خدمتتون.

حال  کامل:

حال کامل (Present perfect ) یا ماضی نقلی از tense های زمان حال است. زمان حال کامل در گذشته انجام شده و اثری تا بحال گذاشته است.یعنی گویا میان دو زمان حال و گذشته ایستاده است. زمان حال کامل بسیار کاربردی است و انگلیسی زبانان از این زمان بسیار استفاده میکنند.در ابتدای توضیحات به بررسی جامع حال کامل به لحاظ ساختار و کاربرد میپردازیم.

در ساختار حال کامل این موارد را داریم:

Structure

? + Formula:
Have/has +sub +p.p Sub +have/has+ NOT +p.p Sub +have/has + p.p
Have you learned it? I haven’t learned it. I have learned it. e.x:
Has she called him? She hasn’t called him. She has called him

Legend: sub: subject (فاعل)   ,  p.p : past participle (قسمت سوم فعل)

1 همانطور که ملاحظه می کنید فعل کمکی استفاده شده ، have و has میباشد. (مشترک با زمان حال کامل استمراری)

2 برای منفی کردن از لفظ NOT استفاده میشود. ( مشترک با زمان حال کامل استمراری)

3 فعل اصلی نیز حالت past participle میگیرد. یعنی به صورت قسمت سوم.

*: فعل کمکی با توجه به فاعل می آید. has برای سوم شخص های مفرد و have مابقی.

*: توجه کنید که در این زمان اگر فعل کمکی واقع در جمله به صورت مخفف آمد ،آن را با tobe اشتباه نگیریم.

She’s (has) already watched it.

Function

1. ابتدا نکته ای خدمت دوستان عرض کنم که perfect tense  زمانی نشان از تکمیل عملی است پیش از زمان مشخص و حرف و سخن و حدیثی از زمان معین نیست!!!

I have made a phone call

در این مثال شخص در زمان نا معلوم عملِ تلفن زدن را تمام کرده.

2. در زبان انگلیسی به دلایلی این زمان را حال میخوانند:

a) در زمان حال کامل میشود یعنی اتمام کار در حال است.

b) نیاز یا تمایلی به گفتن زمان انجام کار نیست.

C)قسمت حائز اهمیت این زمان، نتیجه حاصله و آثار عمل در حال کنونی میباشد و زمان اتفاق عمل چندان اهمیت ندارد و اگر قید زمان معین برای ما مهم است نمی بایست از این ساختار و زمان استفاده کرد.(به عبارتی عمل اهمیت بیشتری نسبت به زمان دارد)

3. عملی که گوینده در گذشته انجام داده و اثرش تا به حال باقی است.

He has lost my key…

او کلیدم را گم کرده است…

You have gone to shiraz

تو به شیراز رفته ای…

 

حال کامل استمراری present perfect continuous

قبل از بررسی فرق این زمان با حال کامل ،‌نگاهی به ساختار این زمان بی اندازیم. 

subject +have/has +been +V ing

در این ساختار فعل اصلی به صورت ing فرم می آید و نشانگر تداوم عمل است .

زمان حال کامل استمراری یا present perfect continuous عملی است که فاعل آن را در گذشته شروع کرده و در تداوم بوده است. زمان حال کامل استمراری کاربرد بسیار دارد و استفاده از ساختار این زمان نیاز به تمرین مداوم دارد.

 

Structure(ساختار)

+ ?  
Sub +have +been+…ing Sub +have +NOT +been+..ing Have +sub +been+…ing?
I’ve been studying I’ve not been studying Have you been studying?  
She has been working She’s not been working Have you been working?

1: با توجه به استمراری بودن فعل اصلی ما ing دارد.

2: عبارت have/has been جایگاهی همیشگی دارد.

3: برای سوالی کردن ،فعل کمکی (have / has) ابتدای جمله قرار میگیرد.

Function(کاربرد)

این زمان به بیان عملی می پردازد که از گذشته شروع شده و امتداد داشته تا زمان حال و ممکن است در آینده هم ادامه پیدا کند.

 

اگه سوالی در مورد حال کامل استمراری برایتان پیش اومده ابتدا بر روی کلمه توضیحات حال کامل استمراری  کلیک کنید و به پاراگراف بعد به خوبی دقت داشته اید.

 

اینکه تفاوت این دو در پیوستگی و تداوم در حال کامل استمراری است و عمل تمام نشده و یا گوینده بر ادامه عمل تاکید داشته است. در نمودار پایین کاملا حالت عمل این زمان مشخص است:

حال کامل استمراری

حال کامل استمراری در انگلیسی بر نمودار

مثال برای تفاوت بین حال کامل و حال کامل استمراری:

Present perfect: I’ve written 3 letters since lunch.

از ناهار تا الان 3 نامه نوشته ام


Present perfect continuous: I’ve been writing letters since lunch

از ناهار تا بحال مشغول نوشتن سه نامه بوده ام. 

 

بنابراین در گرامر حال کامل استمراری زمانی در گذشته که شروع شده و ادامه داشته و هنوز نیز در حال انجام است.

Sarah has been watching movie for 5 hours.

سارا برای پنج ساعت است که دارد فیلم میبیند.


More examples:

She’s been playing Tennis since 1987.

او از سال 1987 تنیس بازی میکند.


I’ve been reading war & peace for the last 3 years.

من سه سال اخیر درحال خواندن جنگ و صلح بوده ام


Our team has been changing since our last lost.

تیم ما درحال تغییر بوده است از اخرین شکست.


It’s about 11 hours she’s been sleeping. It’s time he woke up.

نزدیک به 11 ساعته که خواب بوده است.وقتشه بیدار بشه.


What have you been doing since 4 pm?

از ساعت 4 عصر داشتی چکار میکردی؟


How long have you been working in dentistry?

چه مدته که داری در دندانپزشکی کار میکنی؟؟

englshworld

سایت انگلش ورلد

مروری بر فرق بین حال کامل و حال کامل استمراری در انگلیسی:

حال کامل زمانی است که فاعل آن به عملی اشاره دارد که در گذشته ای نامعلوم انجام شده و می تواند تاثیری بر حال بگذارد. اما زمان حال کامل استمراری به عملی اشاره دارد که فاعل آن را از گذشته شروع به انجام دادن کرده است و تا به حال در حال انجام بوده استو در واقع در زمان حال کامل استمراری عملی در حال انجام بوده است و میتواند نیز در گذشته ادامه داشته باشد.

همینطور به لحاظ ساختار نیز فعل اصلی در حال کامل به حالت قسمت سوم قرار دارد اما در حال کامل استمراری به حالت استمراری قرار دارد ( فعل اصلی Ing می گیرد) .

دوستان ما برای یادگیری جامع گرامر زبان انگلیسی پکیج هایی با گذشت زمان مدید و با تلاش گردآوری کرده ایم میتوانید از آن ها در این قسمت استفاده کنید.

این صفحه نیز به بررسی این زمان نیز پرداخته است.

 

برای یادگیری هریک از زمان های گرامری  به صورت مجزا روی آنها کلیک کنید .حال کامل و حال کامل استمراری

نظرات و دیدگاهتون رو برای ما ارسال کنید. با تشکر از همراهی شما عزیزان

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