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آموزش گرامر گذشته استمراری در انگلیسی+فیلم آموزشی – Past continuous

گرامر گذشته استمراری در انگلیسی

گرامر گذشته استمراری در انگلیسی از زمان های دستوری است که در زمان گذشته (past) و صرف استمراری (continuous)  که عمل آن به حالت مستمر و موقت بوده و زمان گذشته استمراری در حال انجام شدن میباشد. در ابتدا باید بدانیم که اکثر اوقات این زمان همراه با گذشته ساده میباشد. در این بخش به بررسی ساختار و کاربرد آن در شرایط مختلف میپردازیم.

ساختار کلی زمان گذشته استمراری در انگلیسی:

Structure (گذشته استمراری)

Sub+ to be V+..ing Sub+NOT+to be V+…ing Tobe V+ sub+…ing
You were playing. You were not playing. Were you playing?  
She was going. She was not going. Was she going?

Legend:    sub: subject        tobe V:to be verb:was / were

مثال های گذشته استمراری (present continuous examples)

  • You were watching some films in this park last night.
  • Our classmates were shopping junk foods in that market.
  • Taylor swift was singing different kinds of songs, especially modern in her last concert.
  • You  were listening to melodious songs. You are really into them
  • She was traveling many countries in all over the world.
  • They were playing Golf in the field last Friday .
  • The poet standing by the door was writing romantic poems during the last year.
  • The writer was writing some great texts.
  • were you listening to Rock songs?
  • Sarah was not quarreling with me in the morning.
  • were you playing the piano in the hotel?
  • I was helping him do all his duties as well. 
  • His grandpa was cooking chicken with vinegar.
  • We were watching the sitcom match on television.

 

سوالی کردن جملات گذشته استمراری در انگلیسی با مثال : 

برای سوالی کردن جملات گذشته استمراری در انگلیسی می بایست مثل همیشه از فعل کمکی استفاده کرد. افعال کمکی در این زمان عبارت اند از : was – were

به این مثال ها دقت کنید :

  • Was she going to park?
  • Were they all doing the chores together?
  • Was she seeing a new boy last week?
  • Was she playing games with me?
  • Were we fighting about politics all day long?
  • Was Sarah telling me funny jokes?
  • Were they reading dramatic novel during their time of going to bed?

*در ساختار جملات گذشته استمراری، همانطور که ملاحضه میکنید فعل اصلی به صورت  ing  بعد از فعل کمکی (was / were) میآید.

*و مثل همیشه هم برای سوالی کردن جملات، از آوردن فعل کمکی در ابتدای جمله استفاده میکنیم.

نکتهدقت کنید که هنگامی که جملات زبان انگلیسی به حالت yes – no question باشد ، لحن و آوادر انتهای جمله (intonation) به حالت rising میباشد. یعنی شدت و استرس کلام در انتهای جمله قرار میگیرد.

 

 

 

 

منفی کردن جملات گذشته استمراری با مثال :

برای منفی کردن جملات گذشته استمراری همانند باقی جملات در انگلیسی به فعل کمکی لفظ NOT اضافه میکنیم. یعنی wasn’t OR was not و weren’t OR were not بعد از فاعل یا نهاد جمله قرار میگیرد. به مثال های زیر توجه کنید:

  • You were not watching some films in this park last night.
  • Our classmates were not shopping junk foods in that market.
  • Taylor swift was not singing different kinds of songs, especially modern in her last concert.
  • You  were not listening to melodious songs. You are really into them
  • She was not traveling many countries in all over the world.
  • They were not playing Golf in the field last Friday .
  • The poet standing by the door was not writing romantic poems during the last year.
  • The writer was not writing some great texts.
  • You were not listening to Rock songs?
  • Sarah was not quarreling with me in the morning.
  • You were not playing the piano in the hotel?
  • I wasn’t helping him do all his duties as well. 
  • His grandpa wasn’t cooking chicken with vinegar.
  • We were not watching the sitcom match on television.

 

 

 

Function:

زمان گذشته استمراری برای بیان عملی در گذشته ای مشخص که درحال تداوم بوده است و ادامه داشته اشاره دارد . (It represents an on-going action in the past)

در واقع length of time در این زمان آشکار هست. 

نکته دیگری که قابل تامل است این است که این زمان در اکثر مواقع با زمان گذشته ساده یا simple past همراه است.

 ارتباط گذشته ساده با گذشته استمراری 

عزیزان  این دو زمان دستوری باهم دیگر ارتباط نزدیکی دارند. در واقع هنگامی که عملی توسط زمان گذشته استمراری در حال تداوم بوده است ، توسط گذشته ساده این عمل قطع میشود. به این مثال دقت کنید : 

هنگامی که داشتم ظرف هارو میشستم ، مادرم با من تماس گرفت.

زمان جمله “مادرم با من تماس گرفت” گذشته ساده است و میبینیم که این جمله,، عمل “شستن ظرف هارو” قطع کرده است.

مثال های انگلیسی گذشته استمراری با گذشته ساده :

When I woke up this morning, it was raining.
I was sleeping when you called me.

I broke my hand when I was playing soccer.
As I was going to park , I met an old friend.
We were not watching television fortunately when the power went off.

 

همینطور که مشاهده میکنید، میبینید که هردوی این زمان به ما کمک میکند که چطور جملات بهم مرتبط هستند. و عملی که در حال انجام بوده ( Past continuous) توسط عملی (past simple) قطع شده است.

تفاوت این زمان رو با گذشته ساده یا simple past بخوبی فرا بگیرید.

 

خلاصه ای از گرامر گذشته استمراری در انگلیسی :

زمان گذشته استمراری از زمان های گذشته است که فاعل ، آن را به صورت موقت اما پیوسته در حال انجام دادن بوده است. فعل کمکی در این زمان was – were میباشد که بعداز فاعل یا نهاد قرار میگیرد. فعل اصلی نیز به حالت ing بعد از فعل کمکی قرار مییگرد. برای سوالی کردن این زمان فعل کمکی در ابتدای جمله قرار میگیرد و برای منفی کردن آن لفظ Not به فعل کمکی اضافه میشود. این زمان برای محاورات و روزمره بسیار کاربردی است.

در انتهای این بخش نیز پرداختیم که زمان گذشته استمراری در بیشتر موارد همراه با گذشته ساده است. علت این امر نیز برای کامل کردن مفهوم جمله میباشد. زمان گذشته ساده عمل در حال انجام شده را قطع میکند .

( Simple past is often used to interrupt another action which it it past continuous )

برای همراهی کردن ما در کانال یوتیوب اینجا کلیک کنید. پر از اطلاعات و توضیحات صد در صد رایگان هست

علاقمندان که تمایل به یادگیری تین مطالب هستندمیتوانند روی این وبسایت کلیک کنند

نوشته های مشابه

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