Grammar, پست

توضیح جامع past perfect گذشته کامل + مثال

گرامر گذشته کامل - توضیح past perfect

گذشته کامل (past perfect) یا ماضی بعید یکی از زمان های گذشته و در صرف زمانی کامل قرار دارد. این زمان به عملی اشاره دارد که بطور کامل تمام شده است.

در این زمان، فاعل عمل را قبل از زمان دیگری که عموما گذشته ساده ( simple past ) است انجام شده و زمان گذشته کامل نشان دهنده عملی تمام شده میباشد . گذشته کامل معادلی با ماضی بعید در فارسی نیز دارد.

در این بخش به توضیح past perfect ، زمان گذشته کامل به لحاظ ساختاری و کاربردی بطور کامل خواهیم پرداخت.


ساختار زمان گذشته کامل (past perfect) شباهت به زمان حال کامل (present perfect) دارد با این تفاوت که فعل کمکی استفاده شده در زمان گذشته کامل ، had می باشد. لطفا به ساختار کلی این زمان دقت کنید:

Structure

+      ?          
Sub +had +p.p. Sub +had +NOT +p.p. Had +sub +p.p?
I had eaten. I hadn’t eaten. Had you eaten?  
Sarah had come. Sarah hadn’t come. Had Sarah come?

1:فعل کمکی در این زمان had می باشد.

2:جمله با افزودن فعل NOT به منفی اتبدیل میشود

3:با توجه به کامل بودنِ tense، فعل ما به صورت قسمت سوم (past participle) می آید.

 

چگونه زمان گذشته کامل را منفی کنیم؟

برای منفی کردن جملات گذشته کامل ، طبق قاعده زبان انگلیسی به فعل کمکی لفظ Not را اضافه می کنیم. فعل کمکی زمان گذشته کامل had می باشد. مثال هایی برای جملات گذشته کامل: 

  • She had not gone before the party.
  • The bus hadn’t left by the time I got to the bus station.
  • I had not written the letter before he wanted.
  • Kate hadn’t wanted to see the movie .
  • They didn’t win the game because they had not worked out well unfortunately.
  • Sarah had not met David before you invited us for the party. 
  • She had not studied enough before she took final exam.
  • She was awake all night long because she had received really bad news.

 

چگونه زمان گذشته کامل را سوالی کنیم؟ 

برای سوالی کردن جملات گذشته کامل (past perfect) ، می بایست فعل کمکی (had) را ابتدای جمله بیاوریم تا جمله سوالی شود. ( دقت کنید که در صورت وجود  wh questions فعل کمکی had بعد از آن قرار میگیرد) مثال :

  • Had she gone before the party?
  • Had  The bus left by the time I got to the bus station?
  • What Had I written in the letter before he came to see?
  • Had Kate wanted to see the movie ?
  • Had they worked out well because they didn’t win the game because ?
  • who Had Sarah met before you invited us for the party?
  • Had she studied enough before she took final exam?
  • Had she received really bad news because She was awake all night long?

چه زمانی از زمان گذشته کامل استفاده کنیم؟

Function(توضیح past perfect کاربرد

1. عملی که قبل از عمل دیگری در گذشته انجام شده و آن عمل دیگر به صورت گذشته ساده می آید.

When Sarah arrived at the party , Jim had gone to his city.

دقت کنید که رفتنِ جیم زودتر از رسیدن  سارا اتفاق افتاد است.

یعنی فرضا (جیم ساعت 10 شب رفته بود،اما سارا ساعت 12 رسیده)

پس عملی که زودتر اتفاق افتادِ از جمله گذشته کامل یا ماضی بعید استفاده میکنیم.

مثال های بیشتر برای زمان گذشته کامل:
  •  
    • Arash had gone to the hospital before he was called.
    • They had watched the game in New Camp stadium.
    • We bought some bicycles for students who had got the best mark.
    • You had read a text by Hamlet for people.
    • Ali sang different kinds of songs, especially rock and roll because he had always wanted to.
    • I had done all my assignment.
    • John had got around all around the city before you took him out again.
    • I and my friends had played soccer in our yard.
    • The man had recited a romantic poem from the Rumor.
    • The director had given actors some scenario to cooperate with them.
    • had you gone to the concert which it holds by Taylor Swift?
    • because I had a busy schedule, I had attended the program.
    • Fortunately, David had joined us at the meeting.
    • I had helped him to write down his homework.
    • My mom had done the dishes before I woke up.
    • I had arranged all the necessary tools for mounting.

2. عملی در گذشته که اختلاف زمانی آن با زمان دیگری در گذشته بسیار کم است.

He suddenly understood his keys had got lost.

او ناگهان فهمید که کلید هایش گمشدِ بود.

After we had washed up, we went to bed.

بعد از اینکه شستوشو کردیم. به رختخواب رفتیم.

حالا این عکس دقت کنید:

 

گرامر گذشته کامل به عملی که قبل از عمل دیگر در گذشته انجام شده اشاره دارد

توضیح گرامر گذشته کامل در انگلیسی به همراه مثال

دقت کنید به جایگاه زمان گذشته کامل در جمله

همینطور زمان گذشته کامل (past perfect) به نارضایتی در گذشته نیز اشاره دارد. به مثال های زیر دقت کنید:

I wished I had taken a car to go there in time

ای کاش که ماشین میبردم تا زودتر از موعد میرفتم.


We wished we had bought some gifts for their marriage. 

ای کاش تعدادی هدیه برای ازدواجشون میخریدیم


more examples:

the girl wished she had asked another thing.

she wished she had met her friend once more.

I wished I had been more polite to my parents.

They wished they had done their best for the game.

 

استفاده Just با گذشته کامل (past perfect ) در انگلیسی

هنگامی که کلمه just را با جمله گذشته کامل همراه کنیم ، به عملی اشاره میکنیم که در مدت بسیار کوتاهی رخ داده است. از مثال های زیر به فهم این مورد کمک بگیرید.

 

she had just escaped from the policemen before they understood who he was.

I had just opened the door before my mother wanted to come in. 

He had just put a bridle on the horse before the horse got wild.



موردی که بسیار حایز اهمیت است این است که این زمان با گذشته ساده همراه است و همینطور باید  به یادگیری این زمان نیز مسلط باشیم. بنابراین میتونید روی لینک گذشته ساده کلیک کنید.

 

خلاصه ای درباره گذشته کامل ، توضیح past perfect در زبان انگلیسی 

زمان گذشته کامل بطور کلی به عملی در گذشته اشاره دارد که قبل از عمل دیگری در گذشته انجام شده است. فعل به صورت قسمت سوم (past participle ) قرار دارد و فعل کمکی آن برای همه ی ضمایر فاعلی یا اسم ها had میباشد. 

 

نظراتتون رو برای ما حتما در قسمت دیدگاه درباره توضیح past perfect یا مطالب ما ارسال کنید. ممنون از همراهی شما عزیزان 😍

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