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توضیح زمان حال کامل استمراری در انگلیسی + مثال

توضیح زمان حال کامل استمراری در انگلیسی

یکی از کاربردی ترین زمان ها برای مکالمات در زبان انگلیسی ، زمان حال کامل استمراری میباشد. در این بخش به بررسی کامل این زمان و توضیح حال کامل استمراری در انگلیسی به طور جامع میپردازیم.

زمان حال کامل استمراری یا present perfect continuous عملی است که فاعل آن را در گذشته شروع کرده و ادامه داده است و ممکن در آینده نیز ادامه داشته باشد. زمان حال کامل استمراری کاربرد بسیار دارد و استفاده از ساختار این زمان نیاز به تمرین دارد.

در ابتدا به توضیح ساختار زمان حال کامل استمراری می پردازیم:

 

Structure(ساختار)

+

?

 

Sub +have +been+…ing

Sub +have +NOT +been +..ing

Have +sub +been+…ing ?

 

I’ve been studying.

I’ve not been studying.

Have you been studying?

 

She has been working.

She’s not been working.

Have you been working?

 

مهم: باتوجه به استمراری بودن، فعل اصلی ما ing دارد.

نکت: عبارت have / has been جایگاهی همیشگی دارد.

مهم: برای سوالی کردن ،فعل کمکی ابتدای جمله قرار میگیرد.

 

توضیح زمان حال کامل استمراری در انگلیسی – englshworld.com

 

نحوه ی منفی کردن زمان حال کامل استمراری در انگلیسی

برای منفی کردن جملات زبان انگلیسی ، می بایست فعل کمکی را در جمله تشخیص بدهیم . فعل کمکی در این زمان have  یا has (که با توجه به فاعل مورد یکی از این دوکلمه را انتخاب میکنیم) می باشد و به این کلمات لفظ not  اضافه می کنیم. به این مثال ها دقت کنید:

  • Arash has not been going to the hospital.
  • They haven’t been watching the game in New Camp stadium.
  • We have not been shopping some bicycles for students who have get the best mark.
  • You have not been reading a text by Hamlet for people.
  • Ali has not been singing different kinds of songs, especially rock and roll.
  • I have not been doing all my assignment on Friday.
  • John hasn’t been traveling all around the world in March.
  • I and my friends have not been playing soccer in our yard on Thursday.
  • The man has not been reciting a romantic poem from the Rumor.
  • The director has not been giving actors some scenario to cooperate with them.
  • You have not been going to the concert which it holds by Taylor Swift?
  • I have not been attending the program because of my busy schedule.
  • Fortunately, David has not been sleeping from morning
  • You have not been helping him to write down his homework.
  • I have not been going to enjoy the tango.
  • I have not been arranging all the necessary tools for mounting.

 

 

نحوه ی سوالی کردن جملات زمان حال کامل استمراری در انگلیسی

برای سوالی کردن جملات حال کامل استمراری باید فعل کمکی مناسب (havehas) را ابتدای جمله قرار داد. به مثال های زیر دقت کنید:

 

  • Has Arash been going to the hospital?
  • Have they been watching the game in New Camp stadium?
  • Have we been shopping some bicycles for students who have get the best mark?
  • Have you been reading a text by Hamlet for people.
  • Has Ali been singing different kinds of songs? especially rock and roll?
  • Have I been doing all my assignment on Friday?
  • Has John been traveling all around the world in March?
  • have I and my friends been playing soccer in our yard on Thursday?
  • Has the man been reciting a romantic poem from the Rumor?
  • Has the director not been giving actors some scenario to cooperate with them?
  • Have you been going to the concert which it holds by Taylor Swift?
  • Have you been arranging all the necessary tools for mounting?

 

در ادامه خواهیم گفت که در چه زمانی باید از این زمان استفاده کنیم. از عزیزان خواهشمندم که با دقت به مطالعه این مطلب بپردازند.

توضیح زمان حال کامل استمراری در انگلیسی – englshworld.com

Function(کاربرد)

 

این زمان به بیان عملی میپردازد که از گذشته شروع شده و تا زمان حال ادامه داشته است و ممکن است در آینده هم ادامه پیدا کند.

نکته :احتمالا سوال شود که: پس حال کامل چییست؟!

اگه این سوال برایتان پیش اومده ابتدا بر روی کلمه توضیحات حال کامل کلیک کنید و به پاراگراف بعد بخوبی دقت داشته اید.

اینکه تفاوت این دو در پیوستگی و تداوم در حال کامل استمراری است و عمل تمام نشده و یا گوینده بر ادامه عمل تاکید داشته.

 

به این دو مثال دقت کنید:

Present perfect: I’ve written 3 letters since lunch.

از ناهار تا الان 3 نامه نوشته ام

Present perfect continuous: I’ve been writing letters since lunch

از ناهار تا بحال مشغول نوشتن سه نامه بوده ام. 

 

بنابراین زمانی در گذشته که شروع شده و ادامه داشته و هنوز نیز درحال انجام است.

Sarah has been watching movie for 5 hours.

سارا برای پنج ساعت است که دارد فیلم میبیند.

More examples of present perfect continuous 

She’s been playing Tennis since 1987.

او از سال 1987 تنیس بازی میکند.

I’ve been reading war & peace for the last 3 years.

من سه سال اخیر درحال خواندن جنگ و صلح بوده ام

Our team has been changing since our last lost.

تیم ما درحال تغییر بوده است از اخرین شکست.

It’s about 11 hours she’s been sleeping. It’s time he woke up.

نزدیک به 11 ساعته که خواب بوده است.وقتشه بیدار شه.

What have you been doing since 4 pm?

از ساعت 4 عصر داشتی چکار میکردی؟

How long have you been working in dentistry?

چه مدته که داری در دندانپزشکی کار میکنی؟؟

 

نحوه ی استفاده از for  و since در زمان حال کامل استمراری با مثال

هنگامی که عملی در بازه ای از زمان انجام شده است از for میکینم. به مثال دقت کنید

I’ve been teaching English for 7 years.

من برای 7 سال انگلیسی تدریس کرده ام.

 

هنگامی از since استفاده می کنیم که عمل از یک نقطه زمانیه خاصی شروع شده و ادامه داشته است. برای مثال:

I’ve been teaching English since 2016.

من از سال 2016 انگلیسی تدریس کرده ام.

 

خلاصه ای درباره گرامر حال کامل استمراری در انگلیسی

این زمان به عملی اشاره  دارد که فاعل آن را در گذشته شروع کرده به انجام دادن و تا به حال به صورت پیوسته ادامه داشته است.( ممکن است در آینده نیز ادامه پیدا کند)

فعل کمکی استفاده شده در این زمان have  و has  می باشد که با توجه به فاعل از آن استفاده می کنیم. ( فعل کمکی has  برای فاعل های سوم شخص مفرد استفاده می شود) فعل اصلی نیز به صورت ing بعد از لفظ been قرار می گیرد.

 

توضیح زمان حال کامل استمراری در انگلیسی – englshworld.com

برای یادگیری گرامر جامع زبان انگلیسی و همینطور یادگیری لغات و اصطلاحات جامع روی کلمه englshworld کلیک کنید

این صفحه نیز به بررسی این زمان نیز پرداخته است.

 

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