Grammar

حال کامل یا گذشته ساده؟

در زبان انگلیسی تفاوت هایی بین زمان حال کامل یا گذشته ساده

(معادل با ماضی نقلی) وجود دارد که دانستن آن ها بسیار مهم و همینطور کاربردی است. حال کامل یا گذشته ساده همیشه گیج کننده بوده است و تفاوت ساختاری و کابردی آن باعث حل این ابهام میشود

خب همانطور که در درس های مربوط  توضیح دادیم،

Present perfect عملی در گذشته است که زمان انجام کار مشخص نیست (non specific).

یعنی عمل در گذشته ای بوده که گوینده تمایل به بیان زمان انجام کار را ندارد یا عمل در گذشته ای نا معلوم اتفاق افتاده.

تاکید این زمان بر نتیجه و خروجی عمل است.

همینطور این زمان تاثیر عمل خود را در حال میگذارد.

برای تفاوت های ساختاری و کاربردی این دو زمان میتوانید به این سایت مراجعه کنید.

اما

Simple Past  عملی در گذشته است که زمان انجام کار مشخص است.

( دوستان دقت کنید بحث مشخص بودن زمان انجام کار،مطلقا وجود یک قید زمان مشخص(yesterday, last week, two years ago,…) نیست،تاکید مکینم.)گاهی زمان عمل خود دانسته است. به قول معروف shared شده است.یعنی مخاطب ،منظور از اتفاق انجام عمل را میداند.

همچنین این زمان شروع و پایانش در گذشته بوده است.

در ترجمه نیز گذشته ساده(simple past) از بن ماضی بعلاوه شناسه استفاده میشود.مثلا:

رفتم،خوردم،آمدند،نشستید،…

اما در ترجمه حال کامل یا ماضی نقلی(present perfect) از صفت مفعولی فعل بعلاوه شناسه(ام،ای،است،ایم،اید،اند):D استفاده میشود

کمی ترسناک شد میدونم اما با مثال پیش بریم(این نکته صرفا جهت اطلاع بیشتر میباشد):

خورده ام،نشته است،شسته ام،..

خب میخواهیم کمی شما را به چالش بکشانیم.این جملات را به انگلیسی بگویید:

(اگر به نکته ای برخورد کردید به درس مربوطه مراجعه کنید)

مدتیه در مدرسه ندیدمت:

ما 24 دسامبر جشن گرفتیم:

کجا رفته ای؟

کجا رفتی؟

Present perfect VS simple past

برای یادگیری جامع زبان انگلیسی اینجا کلیک کنید

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