Grammar, پست

کتاب TOEFL Grammar Guide

دانلود رایگان کتاب گرامر تافل (Grammar Guide)

دانلود رایگان کتاب دیکسون

Dickeson T. – TOEFL Grammar Guide

Do you need a high score on the -TOEFL exam-? Improve your TOEFL Grammar skills- with this easy-to–follow it today!

If you’re about to take the TOEFL exam, then you’re about to discover how to dramatically increase your score! “TOEFL Grammar Guide – 23 -Grammar Rules- You Must Know To Guarantee Your Success On The TOEFL” – will give you the necessary preparation to ensure your grammar will be correct.

This Step-By-Step book will teach you: – What the fundamental TOEFL Grammar rules are – How to use each -Grammar rule- (with simple examples and explanations) – When to use them –

کتاب راهنمای گرامر تافل (Grammar Guide) برای نفراتی که در تلاش گرفتن امتیاز خوب در تافل هستند بسیار مفید میباشد.

در این کتاب شما به -یادگیری 23 قاعده خواهین پرداخت و همینطور به آمادگی نسبی شما برای این ازمون کمک میکند. آزمون تافل یک آزمون بین المللی در سطح دنیا و مورد قبول بسیاری از دانشگاه ها و کشور های دنیاست. واژه TOEFL مخفف عبارت test of English as foreign language به معنای آزمون زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی میباشد. به همین علت ما تلاش بر معرفی این کتاب رو برای عملکرد بهتر در این آزمون داشته ایم.

 

بخشی از کتاب TOEFL Grammar rules :

(part of the book)

 

TOEFL Grammar Rule No.1 – Simple

Present Description :
Simple present is a tense that is used to express an idea
that occurs ‘usually’ or is repeated continuously. Some
examples are daily events, a habit or something that often
happens.
How to Use It:
VERB + s /es (in the third person)
For example > “She speaks English”, “I like salad”, “They
don’t like fish”
The Simple present is easy to conjugate with Regular verbs
because they all finish in the same form. For example, the
verb ‘to eat’:
Subject Conjugated Verb
I Eat
You Eat
She / He Eats
We Eat
You (plural) Eat

They eat

5 | P a g e

However, Irregular verbs do NOT follow this pattern. For
example, the verb ‘to be’:
Subject Conjugated Verb
1 Am
You Are
She/He Is
We Are
You (plural) Are
They Are
When to Use It:
Here are the 4 ways to use it
• Repeated actions > “I go to the gym on Monday
and Thursday”
• Permanent states > “The Sun rises in the
morning””
• Scheduled events in the near future > “The plane
leaves at 6am tomorrow”
• Now (non-continuous) > “I am here now”
Signalling Words:
Frequency Adverbs: Always, never, sometimes, Once/Twice
a week/month etc.

Important Tips:
Many people make the mistake of combining the present
continuous with the simple present.
These forms are INCORRECT:
“She running fast”
“I am go to the mountains”
These forms are CORRECT:
“She is running fast”
“I am going to the mountains”

7 | P a g e

TOEFL Grammar Rule No.2 – Simple
Past
Description:
Simple past expresses an action that started and finished
rtl a specific time in the past. The action must be
(completely finished in the past.
How to Use It:
VERB + ed (regular verbs), or other forms for irregular
verbs
Below it is shown how the verb changes for a Regular verb
and an Irregular verb:
Regular verb (Simple Past)
Positive Negative Question
1 talked 1 did not talk Did 1 talk?
Irregular verb (Simple Past)
Positive Negative Question
1 spoke 1 did not speak Did 1 speak?

8 | Page

When to Use It:
Here are the 5 ways to use it
• Completed action in the past > “Last year, she
travelled to Japan”
• A series of completed actions > “We talked on the
phone, then met for coffee and later went to the
movies”
• Duration in the past > “They lived in Brazil for 5
years”
• Habits in the past > “I never played the piano”
• Past facts or generalisations > “I was a shy child”
Signalling Words:
Yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1 990, the other day, last
Friday, etc
Important Tips:
Words ending in “ed” are often pronounced incorrectly,
simply because people aren’t aware of the rules.
Rule 1) All words that have the last consonant

t before “ed”
as a “t” or ”d” must be pronounced with the “ed” as a
separate syllable.
9 | P a g e

For example: (Pronunciation with syllables)
• Translated – (Trans  -la – ted)
• Needed – (Nee – ded)
• Deposited – (De – pos – i – ted)
Rule 2) All other words that have the last consonant before
Vd” other than “t” or “d” must be pronounced without the
and the “d” is combined with the previous syllable.
For example: (Pronunciation with syllables)
• Looked – (Lookd)
• Watched – (Watchd)
• ‘ Liked – (Likd)

TIP: For all words that end in sounds different to “t” or “d”,
It is easier to think of a “t” sound. Example, talked – /talkt/
Note: see how the “e” is not pronounced.

10 | P a g e

TOEFL Grammar Rule No.3 – Present
Perfect
Description:
The present perfect has three man uses:
• To express an action which started at some point in
the past and it is not finished yet.
• To describe actions that occurred in the past and
their result is evident in the present. It expresses a
process.
• To describe an action that occurred at an
unspecified moment in the past.
How to Use It:
Have/has + past participle of the main verb
Time expressions, like; yesterday, one year ago, last week,
when I was a child, when I lived in Australia, at the
moment, that day, etc., are not used in the present perfect.
Common time expressions for the present perfect are;
ever, never, once, many times, several times, before,
already, etc.

11 | P a g e

The Basic Structure
Affirmative Negative Question
i have been to I have never/not Have you been to
Spain been to Spain Spain?
She has driven a
car
She has never/not
driven a car Has she driven a car?
When to Use It:
Here are the two forms of when to use the present perfect:
1. An unspecified time before now.
For example: ‘I have seen that movie twenty times.’ ‘
People have not travelled to Mars.’
2. Duration from the past until now (non-continuous
verbs)
For example: ‘I have had a cold for two weeks.’ ‘Mary has
loved chocolate since she was a little girl.’
Signal Words:
Ever: Since you were born until right now.
lust: A few minutes ago. The action has completed
recently.

12 | Pa g e.

Already: Is completed and now I ‘ m doing something else.
For: Used to express a period of time (duration).
Since: Used to refer to the specific moment an action
began.

 

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